- In small amounts, magnesium is highly flammable. In larger amounts, there’s enough metal to conduct the heat and it isn’t so easily flammable.
- Magnesium is necessary in human metabolism.
- It is also necessary for plant photosynthesis.
- It’s the ninth most abundant element in the universe.
- Class D fire extinguishers are needed to extinguish magnesium fires, as the carbon dioxide provides fuel for a magnesium fire.
- 60% of our skeleton is magnesium.
- About 13% of the Earth’s mass comes from magnesium: more than the mass of Mars!
- Dry cell batteries use manganese.
- Manganese oxide is used in glass to make it colorless.
- It prevents bone loss and is used for helping treat osteoporosis.
- It is essential in photosynthesis.
- Manganese is needed for the body to control blood sugar and for thyroid function.
- Different ions have different colors, including pink, black, purple, and green.
- Though necessary for our health, too much manganese can lead to various degenerative and intellectual disorders.
- Soda cans use manganese to stiffen the aluminum, allowing the cans to be thin.
- It was discovered by bombarding bismuth-209 with iron-58 nuclei.
- It is radioactive and has uses only in research.
- It was discovered by bombarding einsteinium-53 with helium nuclei (alpha particles).
- It is produced one atom at a time.
- It is also known as quicksilver.
- It is the only metal that is a liquid at room temperature, and one of two elements that are also liquid at room temperature (bromine).
- Compact fluorescent light bulbs contain some mercury vapor.
- Mercury sulfide is known as cinnabar, and it is the main source of mercury.
- Vermilion pigment is made from mercuric sulfide.
- The phrase “mad as a hatter” comes from old hat makers. Hats used to be made with mercury, so prolonged exposure to it had some effects on the hatters minds.
- It is used as a ultra-high-pressure lubricant.
- Bacteria and plants need molybdenum.
- It is highly resistant to heat and corrosion.
- It is used as a catalyst for refining petroleum.
- It strengthens steel.
- Due to its position on the periodic table, it is expected to act like bismuth.
- Calcium and americium were smashed together to form moscovium.
- Its most stable isotope has a half-life of about a fifth of a second (0.22 seconds).
- It’s used in welders hoods and glass blowers goggles.
- Magnets made with neodymium are very highly magnetic and are resistant to demagnetizing.
- If placed close enough together, two neodymium magnets can collide hard enough to shatter.
- They can stay magnetic at high temperatures, even higher than 200°C (about 400°F).
- A neodymium magnet is the reason for your phone’s ability to vibrate.
- Neodymium-iron-boron are the strongest magnets in existence.
- Though notorious for its magnetic abilities, it also colors glass shades of violet, red, and gray.
- Neon glows orange-red when a current passes through it.
- As a liquid, it has 40 times the refrigerating capacity as liquid helium and is much cheaper.
- It is the fourth most abundant element in the universe.
- 0.0018% of the Earth’s atmosphere is made of neon.
- Neon does not form compounds with other elements, although there are some gas phase ions.
- Various oxides produce different colors, including violet, green, yellow, and pinkish-red.
- Though it’s mostly produced synthetically, there have been very small amounts found in the Earth’s crust.
- Alloyed, it can be used as a superconductor.
- Plated over iron, it prevents rusting.
- Most nickel compounds are either green or blue.
- Some plants use it as a nutrient.
- Nickel is used in rechargeable batteries and magnets.
- It is one of four elements which are magnetic at room temperature (other than iron, cobalt, and gadolinium).
- It’s most commonly used for alloying steels for corrosion and heat resistant purposes.
- Nitinol, an alloy of half-nickel and half-titanium, “remembers” its shape. When heated, it can be bent into any shape. When heated and bent again, at a lower temperature this time, it will form itself back into the original shape.
- It’s the fifth most common element on Earth.
- It took 7 years after it was first discovered to verify its existence.
- Its most stable isotope has a half-life of about 20 seconds.
- Niobium titanium superconducting wire is used in MRIs to generate the magnetic fields.
- It is highly resistant to corrosion and heat.
- Alloys with niobium are very strong at high temperatures. This makes them useful for rocketry and jet engines.
- It’s used in arc welding rods.
- Nitrogen in ammonia (NH3) is a vital fertilizer – it’s used to feed one third of the world!
- It’s required to build amino acids.
- It’s a main component in TNT (trinitrotoluene).
- Liquid nitrogen boils at -195.8°C (-320°F).
- All proteins and all living systems contain nitrogen.
- It’s the seventh most abundant element in the universe.
- Air is 78.1% nitrogen.
- The aurora gets its orange, red, violet, blue, and green colors from nitrogen.
- Only small amounts of it have been produced.
- It was produced by bombarding curium with carbon.