- It is a noble gas.
- It was made by bombarding californium with calcium.
- Combined with iridium, it’s used to make fountain pen tips.
- It is the densest element by direct measurement. Using lattice calculations, iridium is the densest.
- Osmium tetroxide can be used to detect fingerprints.
- Alloying it with other metals makes them highly resistant to corrosion and heat.
- Air is 21% oxygen.
- It gives the aurora green and red colors.
- Solid oxygen is brittle.
- It is the third most abundant element in the universe.
- Oxygen itself doesn’t burn, but it fuels the oxidation process for burning (otherwise we all would’ve been cooked millennia ago!).
- Liquid oxygen is pale blue.
- O2 is present in our atmosphere only because of the living creatures on it.
- It is slightly attracted to magnets, but cannot be magnetized.
- Almost half of the weight of the Earth’s crust is oxygen.
- It is used in catalytic converters to convert the harmful chemicals in exhaust into harmless ones. It does this by combusting the leftover fuel from the exhaust (but without a flame).
- It can recycled from catalytic converters.
- It can absorb up to 900 times its own volume in hydrogen.
- Alloying it with gold gives white gold.
- Three allotropes are violet, black, and scarlet.
- It’s important in living things; it’s present in ATP, RNA, DNA, and cell membranes.
- White phosphorus gives off a slight glow in air.
- It’s commonly used in fireworks and weapons.
- It is pyrophoric, i.e., spontaneously combustible in air.
- Matches are made with red phosphorus.
- Phosphorus compounds are common in fertilizers.
- Catalytic converters contain platinum.
- Spark plugs use platinum.
- The oil industry uses it as a refiner.
- It’s categorized as a noble metal because, like the noble gases, it is highly unreactive.
- Of all the metals, it’s the least reactive.
- Turbine engines use it partly for its corrosion resistance at high temperatures.
- Dental devices use it.
- A piece of platinum-iridium alloy is used to standardize the kilogram.
- It can be drawn into a wire more easily than any metal known.
- It has been a life-giving element as it once powered pacemakers.
- Much energy is extracted using plutonium in nuclear power plants.
- Just one kilogram (about 2.24 pounds) can either explode with the power of 20,000 tons of TNT, or produce about 22 million kilowatt hours of energy.
- Despite being a metal, it is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
- Space probes will use it as reserve power when they get too far from the Sun.
- It is so radioactive that a lethal dose is a piece as large as a one hundred millionth of a grain of sand.
- It is used in nuclear weapons.
- It has been used on brushes to remove dust on photographic film.
- Polonium is a carcinogen present in cigarette smoke.
- Since it is energy compact, it is used for thermoelectric power satellites.
- An isotope of polonium emits a blue glow.
- This metal is so soft that it can be cut with a butter knife.
- It is violently reactive with water.
- When it burns, it produces a purple flame.
- It’s an electrolyte.
- Potassium is a nutrient needed for all living cells.
- Fertilizers use potassium, since plants deplete it rapidly from the soil.
- If the air is humid enough, it’ll react with the water and ignite.
- It’s important in maintaining blood pressure.
- They are essential for the brain to send electrical signals to the body.
- It reacts with oxygen to form a green coating.
- Yellow cubic zirconia (fake peridot) derives its color from it.
- Combined with neodymium, it makes the lenses for glass maker’s goggles to filter out yellow light.
- It is used in welder’s goggles, hybrid car batteries, and iPods.
- It strengthens magnesium for aircraft engines.
- Some isotopes generate x-rays through beta decay.
- Promethium salts glow green or blue depending on the decay it undergoes.
- The earliest pacemakers used it for power.
- It’s used in spacecraft power sources.
- It’s the only radioactive rare earth metal.
- Promethium-147 emits gamma rays via radiation.
- It is used mainly for research, but an isotope of protactinium combined with one of thorium has been used for marine sediment dating.
- Uranium and plutonium decays into it.