- Though radioactive, it has quite a stable isotope. Radium-226 has a half-life of 1600 years.
- It was thought to have healing properties and used to be used in toothpaste, jewelry, and many other everyday items.
- It reacts with the nitrogen in the air to form a black coating.
- It is the heaviest alkaline earth metal.
- Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer in North America.
- It is the heaviest gas known.
- This gas glows in the dark due to its radioactivity.
- It has the third highest melting point of all the elements (below carbon and tungsten).
- It is highly corrosion resistant.
- Mirrors use it as a coating and are seen in searchlights for this reason.
- Catalytic converters contain rhenium.
- Besides silver, it is the best reflector.
- It is the fourth most dense element (below iridium, osmium, and platinum).
- With platinum, it is used in producing unleaded gasoline.
- Due to its high heat and corrosion resistance, it is used in jet engines.
- It is formed by bombarding nickel-64 with bismuth-209.
- It is highly radioactive.
- It’s used to remove trace gases in vacuum tube production.
- Atomic clocks will use it as a cheaper alternative to cesium.
- It explodes in water and spontaneously ignites in air (pyrophoric).
- Fireworks use it to produce purple colors.
- The first Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matter, was formed using rubidium.
- It is highly effective in hardening platinum and palladium.
- Ruthenium alloys with platinum and palladium to form corrosion-resistant conductors.
- Concentrated acids do not affect it.
- It is predicted to behave like hafnium.
- It is used for research.
- Samarium cobalt forms a magnet with the highest resistance to demagnetization of any known material.
- Samarium cobalt magnets are used in guitar pickups and headphones.
- It is a dopant in crystals used for lasers.
- Samarium chloride, if given the correct dose, will bind with alcohol and prevent someone from getting intoxicated.
- It makes some of the strongest aluminum alloys known.
- Scandium oxide is used for stadium and film lighting.
- The aerospace industry uses it for its light weight and high melting point.
- It tarnishes in air to a light yellow or pink color.
- It is used for research.
- It was produced by bombarding californium-249 with oxygen ions.
- The photophone, a device which transmitted speech patterns on a beam of light, was produced using selenium.
- Selenium salts help control dandruff.
- Humans need it to produce enzymes.
- It colors glass red, but it can also decolorize it.
- Liquid selenium has very high surface tension.
- Since it is responsive to light, it is used in laser printers and photocopiers.
- It’s most stable isotope has a half-life of one quintillion years (i.e, 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 years).
- It aids in protection against mercury poisoning.
- Sand is the most common source of silicon on Earth in the form of silica, or silicon dioxide.
- Silicon is not silicone. Silicone is a mix of silicon, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
- Pure silicon has the same crystal structure as diamond.
- It is the most significant and commonly used semiconductor in the world.
- Ultra pure silicon is used for electronics. It must be at least 99.9999999% pure silicon.
- Silicon is the backbone to the solar panel industry.
- Opal’s iridescence is caused by silicon.
- Since it is highly resistant to heat, it is used in ceramics.
- Its liquid is denser than its solid.
- It is the best reflector of all elements. Nearly all light is reflected by silver.
- Its high reflectivity makes it useful in telescopes, microscopes, and solar cells.
- It is the best electrical conductor. Copper is most often used because it is much cheaper.
- Long-lasting batteries are made with it.
- It used to be used in dental fillings.
- Silver iodide is used to cause clouds to produce rain, i.e., cloud seeding.
- Sterling silver is 92.5% silver by weight.
- Gold is the only metal that is more ductile than silver.
- It kills bacteria by breaking down cell membranes.
- Of all the alkali metals, sodium is the most reactive.
- It gives off a yellowish-orange tint when a current passes through it.
- Since it’s the most efficient light source, it is used in road lighting.
- If all of the sodium chloride in the oceans were extracted, it would cover all the land of the Earth with a depth of about 500 feet (150 meters).
- It is so soft, it can be cut with a butter knife.
- It’s the sixth most abundant element on Earth.
- Sodium ions are vital for nerve function.
- If it didn’t explode on contact with water, it would float on it.
- It helps maintain fluid balance in the cells of living organisms.
- Fireworks use it to produce a yellow color.
- The bright red color in fireworks comes from strontium.
- Its flame is bright red.
- Some ceramic magnets include strontium.
- An isotope of strontium is used for cardiac imaging.
- Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical that gives eggs their iconic smell.
- It is bright yellow.
- Another name for sulfur is “brimstone.”
- It can both oxidize and reduce.
- Wine contains some sulfur as a preservative.
- Sulfur is used for building amino acids to form proteins and enzymes.
- Sulfuric acid is used in batteries, oil refineries, and fertilizers.